Gene was also repressed by pre-treatment with pheophytin a in a dose-dependent manner, including its protein and mRNA levels . Our results suggest that pheophytin a significantly suppresses NOS2 expression at both the transcriptional and translational levels in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To clarify the repression mechanisms of pheophytin a on NOS2, we transfected a luciferase reporter construct with the NOS2 promoter to determine NOS2 promoter activity under pheophytin a and/or LPS treatment. Compared to the LPS-treated group, pre-treatment with pheophytin a at both 5 and 10 μM effectively reduced the activity of the NOS2 promoter in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells . However, NOS2 mRNA stability was not affected by the pre-application of pheophytin a .

NF-κB is a major transcription factor that is activated during the inflammatory response to LPS. To determine whether synonym of dumb a affects the signaling pathways leading to NF-κB activation, cytosolic and nuclear extracts from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells were prepared. Pheophytin a had no effect on LPS-induced cytosol and nuclear localization and phosphorylation of NF-κB p65 . Inflammatory mediators were mediated not only by NF-κB but also by other transcription factors, such as AP-1. Following inflammatory stimulation, the AP-1 heterodimer, c-Jun and c-Fos translocated into the nucleus, leading to the transcription of several inflammatory proteins.

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Biosynthesis of chlorophyll b and the chlorophyll cycle. Photosynth. An improved general amino acid replacement matrix. Chlorophyll degradation during senescence. Rev. Plant Biol.

Western blot analysis of NOS2 expression. NO is a signaling molecule that has multiple physiological effects on various organ systems, such as host defense, inflammation and immune suppression . We found that pheophytin a showed very strong inhibitory activity against NO production in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Three isoforms of NOS, including endothelial nitric oxide synthase , neuronal nitric oxide synthase and iNOS have been identified in mammalian cells based on their physical and biochemical characteristics.